The Ultimate Guide to Photographic Lighting

Learn about photographic lighting in this comprehensive beginner's guide which includes best settings, techniques and equipment for amazing results.

The Ultimate Guide to Photographic Lighting

1. Introduction

Lighting is one of the most crucial elements in photography, capable of transforming an ordinary scene into an extraordinary image. Whether you're a beginner or a seasoned professional, understanding and mastering photographic lighting is essential to creating stunning, impactful photographs. In this ultimate guide, we'll explore the fundamentals of photographic lighting, different lighting techniques, and tips for achieving the best results in various shooting situations.

1.1. The importance of lighting in photography

Lighting plays a vital role in photography, as it can dramatically affect the mood, atmosphere, and overall quality of an image. Good lighting can help emphasize your subject, create depth and dimension, and evoke emotional responses from viewers. On the other hand, poor lighting can result in flat, dull, or unflattering images that fail to capture the essence of the scene or subject.

1.2. Types of lighting in photography

There are two main types of lighting in photography: natural light and artificial light. Natural light refers to sunlight or ambient light from the environment, while artificial light encompasses any light sources created by humans, such as flashguns, continuous lights, or studio strobes. Both types of lighting have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them often depends on the specific shooting situation and creative goals.

2. Understanding the Properties of Light

To effectively harness the power of lighting in your photography, it's essential to understand the fundamental properties of light and how they affect your images.

2.1. Intensity

Light intensity refers to the brightness or strength of the light source. In photography, light intensity is controlled through exposure settings, such as aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. Understanding how to balance these settings is crucial for achieving properly exposed images and creative effects like shallow depth of field or motion blur.

2.2. Direction

The direction of light refers to the angle at which light hits your subject. The three main types of lighting directions are:

Front lighting: Light is coming from behind the camera, directly illuminating the subject's front. This creates a flat, even light with minimal shadows.

Side lighting: Light is coming from the side of the subject, creating more depth and dimension through the interplay of highlights and shadows.

Back lighting: Light is coming from behind the subject, towards the camera. This can create a dramatic rim light effect or silhouette, depending on the exposure.

2.3. Color temperature

Color temperature describes the perceived warmth or coolness of a light source, measured in Kelvin (K). Lower color temperatures (2500-4000K) appear warmer and more orange, while higher color temperatures (5000-6500K) appear cooler and more blue. Understanding color temperature is essential for achieving accurate white balance and creating specific color moods in your images.

2.4. Quality

Light quality refers to the hardness or softness of the light, which is determined by the size and distance of the light source relative to the subject. Hard light comes from small, distant sources and creates sharp, well-defined shadows, while soft light comes from large, close sources and creates more gradual, diffused shadows. The choice between hard and soft light depends on the desired mood, texture, and subject matter.

3. Natural Light Photography

Natural light photography involves using available sunlight or ambient light to illuminate your subjects, without the aid of artificial light sources.

3.1. Advantages of natural light

Some advantages of using natural light in photography include:

Authenticity: Natural light can create a more authentic and realistic look, capturing the true colors and atmosphere of a scene.

Flexibility: Natural light allows for greater flexibility in terms of location and subject matter, as you're not limited by the need for electrical power or bulky lighting equipment.

Cost-effective: Using natural light is often more cost-effective than investing in artificial lighting gear, making it accessible to photographers of all levels.

3.2. Challenges of natural light

However, natural light photography also comes with its own set of challenges, such as:

Inconsistency: Natural light can be unpredictable and changeable, making it difficult to maintain consistent exposure and color balance throughout a shoot.

Limited control: Unlike artificial light sources, you have limited control over the intensity, direction, and quality of natural light, requiring you to adapt to the available conditions.

Harsh shadows: Direct sunlight, especially during midday, can create harsh, unflattering shadows on your subjects, necessitating the use of diffusers or reflectors to soften the light.

3.3. Tips for natural light photography

To make the most of natural light in your photography, consider the following tips:

Shoot during the "golden hours": The golden hours, which occur just after sunrise and before sunset, offer a warm, soft light that is ideal for portraits, landscapes, and other outdoor subjects.

Use reflectors and diffusers: Reflectors can help bounce light into shadowed areas, while diffusers can soften harsh sunlight for a more flattering effect.

Experiment with backlighting: Backlighting can create a beautiful, ethereal glow around your subjects, especially when combined with natural elements like fog, mist, or foliage.

Adjust white balance: Pay attention to the color temperature of the natural light and adjust your camera's white balance settings accordingly to achieve accurate colors.

4. Artificial Light Photography

Artificial light photography involves using human-made light sources to illuminate your subjects, providing greater control and creativity compared to natural light.

4.1. Types of artificial light sources

There are several types of artificial light sources commonly used in photography, including:

Flashguns (Speedlights): Portable, battery-powered flash units that can be mounted on your camera or used off-camera for more creative lighting setups.

Continuous lights: Constant light sources, such as LED panels or tungsten lamps, that allow you to see the lighting effect in real-time and are often used for video or still life photography.

Studio strobes: Powerful, mains-powered flash units that offer greater light output and control compared to flashguns, ideal for studio photography.

4.2. Advantages of artificial light

Using artificial light in photography offers several advantages, such as:

Consistency: Artificial light sources provide consistent illumination, allowing you to maintain the same exposure and color balance throughout a shoot.

Control: With artificial light, you have full control over the intensity, direction, and quality of the light, enabling you to create specific moods and effects.

Versatility: Artificial light can be used in a wide range of shooting situations, from studio portraits to low-light events, providing greater flexibility in your photography.

4.3. Challenges of artificial light

However, artificial light photography also presents some challenges, including:

Cost: Investing in high-quality artificial lighting gear can be expensive, especially for beginners or those on a tight budget.

Learning curve: Mastering artificial lighting techniques requires time, practice, and experimentation, as well as an understanding of fundamental concepts like exposure, color temperature, and light modifiers.

Portability: Some artificial light sources, particularly studio strobes, can be bulky and less portable compared to natural light or small flashguns.

4.4. Tips for artificial light photography

To achieve the best results with artificial light in your photography, consider the following tips:

Experiment with light modifiers: Use softboxes, umbrellas, or diffusers to soften and shape the light, creating more flattering and dimensional illumination.

Balance ambient and artificial light: When combining artificial light with ambient light, use your camera's flash sync speed and aperture settings to balance the exposure between the two sources.

Use gels for creative color effects: Colored gels can be placed over your artificial light sources to create unique color moods or correct for mixed lighting situations.

Practice off-camera lighting: Experiment with off-camera flash techniques, such as using remote triggers or slave modes, to create more dynamic and three-dimensional lighting setups.

5. Studio Lighting Setups

Studio lighting involves using artificial light sources in a controlled indoor environment to create specific moods, effects, and styles for your photographs.

5.1. Three-point lighting

The most basic and widely used studio lighting setup is three-point lighting, which consists of:

Key light: The main light source that illuminates the subject from the front, determining the overall exposure and mood of the image.

Fill light: A secondary light source, usually placed opposite the key light, that softens shadows and balances the contrast created by the key light.

Back light (rim light): A light placed behind the subject, towards the camera, that creates a subtle rim of light around the subject's edges, separating them from the background.

5.2. Variations on three-point lighting

There are several variations on the basic three-point lighting setup, each creating a different mood or effect:

Paramount lighting: A classic Hollywood-style setup that places the key light directly in front of and slightly above the subject, creating a glamorous, smooth look.

Split lighting: A dramatic setup that places the key light 90 degrees to the side of the subject, creating a strong contrast between light and shadow.

Rembrandt lighting: A moody setup that places the key light 45 degrees to the side and slightly above the subject, creating a small, triangular highlight on the opposite cheek.

5.3. One-light and two-light setups

In addition to three-point lighting, studio photographers may also use simpler one-light or two-light setups for specific purposes:

Butterfly lighting: A one-light setup that places the light source directly in front of and slightly above the subject, creating a butterfly-shaped shadow under the nose, ideal for beauty or glamour shots.

Clamshell lighting: A two-light setup that places one light above and one light below the subject, creating a soft, even illumination that minimizes shadows, perfect for portrait or product photography.

5.4. Tips for studio lighting

To achieve the best results with studio lighting, consider the following tips:

Use a light meter: A handheld light meter can help you accurately measure the exposure and ratios between your light sources, ensuring consistent and properly exposed images.

Experiment with light modifiers: Softboxes, umbrellas, beauty dishes, and snoots are just a few of the many light modifiers available for shaping and controlling your studio lights.

Control your background: Use background stands, paper rolls, or fabric to create a clean, uncluttered background that complements your subject and lighting setup.

Practice, practice, practice: Studio lighting requires a lot of experimentation and fine-tuning to master, so don't be afraid to spend time practicing and refining your techniques.

6. Outdoor Lighting Techniques

Outdoor lighting involves using a combination of natural and artificial light sources to illuminate your subjects in an outdoor setting, such as a park, beach, or city street.

6.1. Fill flash

Fill flash is a technique that involves using a flashgun or strobe to "fill in" shadows created by harsh natural light, such as direct sunlight. By balancing the exposure between the ambient light and the flash, you can create a more evenly lit, flattering image.

6.2. High-speed sync (HSS)

High-speed sync is a feature found on some flashguns and studio strobes that allows you to use flash at shutter speeds faster than your camera's native flash sync speed (usually 1/200s or 1/250s). This is particularly useful for outdoor portraits, where you may want to use a wide aperture to create a shallow depth of field while still balancing the exposure with the bright ambient light.

6.3. Reflectors and diffusers

Reflectors and diffusers are portable, lightweight tools that can help you control and shape natural light in an outdoor setting. White or silver reflectors can be used to bounce light into shadowed areas, while black reflectors can be used to subtract light and create deeper shadows. Diffusers, such as translucent panels or scrims, can be used to soften harsh sunlight for a more flattering effect.

6.4. Tips for outdoor lighting

To make the most of outdoor lighting in your photography, consider the following tips:

Plan your shoot around the sun: Pay attention to the position and quality of the sunlight at different times of day, and plan your shoot accordingly to take advantage of the best light.

Use a long lens for compression: A long telephoto lens can help compress the perspective and create a more flattering, evenly lit portrait by reducing the apparent contrast between the subject and background.

Experiment with backlighting: Placing your subject between the camera and the sun can create a beautiful, rim-lit effect, especially when combined with fill flash or a reflector.

Balance color temperature: When combining natural and artificial light sources, use gels or white balance settings to match the color temperature of the flash to the ambient light for a more natural-looking result.

7. Creative Lighting Techniques

In addition to the fundamental lighting techniques discussed above, there are many creative lighting techniques you can use to add visual interest, drama, or emotion to your photographs.

7.1. Colored gels

Colored gels are translucent sheets of plastic that can be placed over your light sources to change the color of the light. By using different colors or combinations of gels, you can create unique, artistic effects or simulate specific lighting conditions, such as sunset or neon lights.

7.2. Light painting

Light painting is a technique that involves using a long exposure and a moving light source, such as a flashlight or sparkler, to "paint" patterns, shapes, or text in the air. This can be done in a dark studio or outdoors at night, and can create stunning, one-of-a-kind images.

7.3. Silhouettes

Silhouettes are created by placing your subject between the camera and a bright light source, and exposing for the background rather than the subject. This creates a dark, featureless outline of your subject against a bright, colorful background, which can be a powerful way to convey mood, mystery, or drama.

7.4. Bokeh

Bokeh refers to the aesthetic quality of the out-of-focus areas in an image, particularly the circular or hexagonal shapes created by light sources in the background. By using a wide aperture and carefully placing lights or reflective objects in the background, you can create beautiful, dreamy bokeh effects that add depth and interest to your images.

7.5. Tips for creative lighting

To explore and master creative lighting techniques in your photography, consider the following tips:

Experiment with different light sources: Don't be afraid to use unconventional light sources, such as candles, string lights, or even your smartphone screen, to create unique and interesting lighting effects.

Play with color: Use gels, color filters, or even colored background papers to add vibrant, unexpected colors to your images.

Combine techniques: Try combining multiple lighting techniques, such as silhouettes with light painting or bokeh with colored gels, to create even more unique and creative results.

Embrace trial and error: Creative lighting often involves a lot of experimentation and happy accidents, so don't be discouraged if your first attempts don't turn out as planned. Keep practicing and refining your techniques, and you'll soon discover your own signature style.

8. Conclusion

Mastering photographic lighting is a lifelong journey that requires patience, practice, and a willingness to experiment and learn from your mistakes. By understanding the fundamental properties of light, exploring different lighting techniques, and developing your own creative vision, you can take your photography to new heights and create images that truly stand out.

8.1. Key takeaways

Some of the key takeaways from this ultimate guide to photographic lighting include:

Lighting is one of the most important elements in photography, capable of transforming the mood, atmosphere, and overall quality of an image.

Understanding the properties of light, such as intensity, direction, color temperature, and quality, is essential for effectively using light in your photography.

Natural light and artificial light each have their own advantages and challenges, and the choice between them depends on the specific shooting situation and creative goals.

Studio lighting setups, such as three-point lighting and its variations, provide a controlled environment for creating specific moods and effects in your photographs.

Outdoor lighting techniques, such as fill flash, high-speed sync, and the use of reflectors and diffusers, allow you to balance and shape natural light for more flattering and dynamic images.

Creative lighting techniques, such as colored gels, light painting, silhouettes, and bokeh, can add visual interest, drama, and emotion to your photographs.

8.2. Continuing your lighting journey

As you continue your journey in photographic lighting, remember to:

Practice regularly: The more you practice, the more comfortable and confident you'll become with different lighting techniques and setups.

Study the work of others: Look at the work of photographers you admire, and try to deconstruct how they used lighting to create specific moods or effects in their images.

Collaborate with others: Working with other photographers, models, or stylists can help you learn new techniques, exchange ideas, and push your creative boundaries.

Invest in your education: Attend workshops, read books, or watch online tutorials to deepen your understanding of photographic lighting and stay up-to-date with the latest techniques and technologies.

By mastering the art and science of photographic lighting, you'll be well on your way to creating stunning, impactful images that capture the hearts and minds of your viewers. So grab your camera, your lights, and your creativity, and start exploring the incredible world of photographic lighting today!

9. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1: What is the most important factor in achieving good lighting in photography?

A1: The most important factor in achieving good lighting in photography is understanding and controlling the direction, intensity, and quality of the light. By carefully observing how light falls on your subject and using techniques like positioning, modifiers, and exposure settings to shape and control the light, you can create images with the desired mood, contrast, and dimensionality. Whether you're using natural or artificial light, the key is to be intentional and purposeful in how you use light to tell your story and convey your creative vision.

Q2: What is the difference between hard light and soft light?

A2: Hard light comes from a small, concentrated light source, such as direct sunlight or an undiffused flash. It creates strong, well-defined shadows and high contrast between light and dark areas. Hard light can be useful for emphasizing texture, creating dramatic effects, or conveying a sense of intensity or urgency.

Soft light, on the other hand, comes from a large, diffused light source, such as a window on an overcast day or a softbox. It creates gentle, gradual shadows and low contrast between light and dark areas. Soft light is often more flattering for portraits, as it minimizes blemishes and wrinkles, and creates a more natural, balanced look.

Q3: How do I avoid harsh shadows when shooting in direct sunlight?

A3: There are several ways to avoid harsh shadows when shooting in direct sunlight:

Shoot during the "golden hours" (just after sunrise or just before sunset) when the sun is lower in the sky and the light is softer and warmer.

Use a diffuser or scrim to soften and spread the light, creating a more even illumination on your subject.

Position your subject in the shade, or use a reflector to bounce light back onto them and fill in the shadows.

Use fill flash to balance the exposure between the bright sunlight and the shadowed areas, creating a more evenly lit image.

Embrace the shadows as a creative element, using them to add depth, drama, or visual interest to your composition.

Q4: What is the best way to light a portrait in a studio setting?

A4: The best way to light a portrait in a studio setting depends on the specific look and mood you're trying to achieve, but a good starting point is a basic three-point lighting setup. This consists of:

A key light: The main light source that illuminates the subject from the front, usually placed at a 45-degree angle to the side and slightly above eye level.

A fill light: A secondary light source that softens the shadows created by the key light, usually placed on the opposite side and at a lower intensity.

A back light (rim light): A light placed behind the subject, aimed back towards the camera, that creates a subtle rim of light around the subject's head and shoulders, separating them from the background.

From there, you can experiment with different variations and ratios of these lights, as well as different modifiers (softboxes, umbrellas, beauty dishes, etc.) to create different effects and moods. The key is to start with a solid foundation and then adjust and refine your lighting until you achieve the desired result.

Q5: How can I use colored gels to create unique lighting effects?

A5: Colored gels are translucent sheets of plastic that can be placed over your light sources to change the color of the light. They come in a wide range of colors and densities, and can be used in many creative ways, such as:

Color correcting: Use a color temperature orange (CTO) gel to warm up a cool light source, or a color temperature blue (CTB) gel to cool down a warm light source, to match the ambient light or create a specific mood.

Color contrast: Use complementary colors (such as blue and orange) on your key and fill lights to create a dynamic, visually striking image with strong color contrast.

Color washing: Use a single color gel to bathe your entire scene in a monochromatic wash of color, creating a surreal, dreamlike effect.

Color accents: Use a colored gel on a focused light source (such as a snoot or grid) to add a pop of color to a specific part of your image, such as a background element or a subject's hair or clothing.

Color storytelling: Use colors that are associated with specific emotions, themes, or settings (such as red for passion, green for nature, or purple for mystery) to help convey your narrative or message.

The key to using colored gels effectively is to experiment with different combinations and placements, and to use them purposefully to enhance your creative vision, rather than just for the sake of novelty.

Q6: What is high-speed sync (HSS) and when would I use it?

A6: High-speed sync (HSS) is a feature found on some flashguns and studio strobes that allows you to use flash at shutter speeds faster than your camera's native flash sync speed (usually 1/200s or 1/250s). Normally, when you use flash, your shutter speed is limited to the sync speed because the flash duration is much shorter than the time it takes for the shutter to fully open and close. With HSS, the flash pulses multiple times during the exposure, essentially acting like a continuous light source, which allows you to use any shutter speed you want.

HSS is particularly useful in situations where you want to use flash in bright ambient light conditions, such as:

Outdoor portraits: When shooting portraits outdoors in bright sunlight, you may want to use a wide aperture to create a shallow depth of field and separate your subject from the background. However, this may require a shutter speed faster than your sync speed to avoid overexposure. With HSS, you can use a faster shutter speed to balance the ambient light with the flash, while still maintaining a wide aperture.

Fill flash: When using flash to fill in shadows or balance the exposure in bright conditions, HSS allows you to use a faster shutter speed to avoid overexposing the background or creating motion blur.

Action shots: When photographing fast-moving subjects in bright light, HSS allows you to use a faster shutter speed to freeze the action, while still using flash to illuminate the subject or create a specific effect.

Keep in mind that using HSS may reduce the effective power and range of your flash, as the rapid pulsing requires more energy and generates more heat. However, for many situations, the creative control and flexibility that HSS offers makes it a valuable tool in your lighting arsenal.

Q7: How do I balance ambient light with flash when shooting events or weddings?

A7: Balancing ambient light with flash when shooting events or weddings can be challenging, as you're often dealing with a mix of different light sources, colors, and intensities. However, there are several techniques you can use to achieve a natural, well-balanced exposure:

Use your camera's exposure settings to control the ambient light: Set your aperture and shutter speed to expose properly for the ambient light in the room, whether it's the existing overhead lights, windows, or candles. This will create a base exposure that captures the overall mood and atmosphere of the scene.

Use your flash to illuminate your subjects and fill in shadows: Once you have your base exposure, adjust your flash power and position to properly illuminate your subjects and fill in any shadows or dark areas. You may need to use a diffuser, bounce card, or off-camera flash to achieve a more natural, flattering light.

Match the color temperature of your flash to the ambient light: If the ambient light is very warm (such as incandescent bulbs or candles), use a color temperature orange (CTO) gel on your flash to match the warmth. If the ambient light is very cool (such as fluorescent lights or blue LEDs), use a color temperature blue (CTB) gel to match the coolness. This will help create a more cohesive, natural-looking image.

Use high-speed sync (HSS) if necessary: If you're shooting in bright ambient light conditions, such as a sunny outdoor ceremony or a well-lit reception hall, you may need to use HSS to be able to use a wide aperture or fast shutter speed while still using flash. This will help you balance the exposure and create a shallow depth of field or freeze motion.

Experiment with different flash modes and ratios: Most modern flashguns have different modes, such as TTL (through-the-lens metering), manual, or multi-flash, that allow you to control the flash output and timing in different ways. Experiment with these modes, as well as different flash-to-ambient ratios, to find the best balance for each situation.

Practice and observe: The more you practice balancing ambient light with flash in different scenarios, the more intuitive and second-nature it will become. Pay attention to how different lighting conditions, camera settings, and flash techniques affect your images, and try to learn from your successes and mistakes.

Remember, the key to balancing ambient light with flash is to use your camera settings and flash controls to create a cohesive, natural-looking exposure that enhances the mood and story of the scene, rather than overpowering or distracting from it.

Q8: What are some common lighting mistakes to avoid in photography?

A8: Some common lighting mistakes to avoid in photography include:

Not paying attention to the direction of the light: The direction of the light can have a huge impact on the mood, depth, and dimensionality of your image. Avoid lighting your subject straight-on, as this can create a flat, unflattering look. Instead, experiment with side lighting, backlighting, or other angles to create more interest and depth.

Using too much or too little light: Overexposing or underexposing your image can result in a loss of detail, contrast, or color. Use your camera's histogram and highlight warning to check your exposure, and adjust your aperture, shutter speed, ISO, or flash power accordingly.

Not modifying or shaping the light: Harsh, unmodified light can create unflattering shadows, hot spots, or glare on your subject. Use diffusers, reflectors, or other modifiers to soften, shape, or redirect the light for a more pleasing effect.

Mixing different color temperatures: When using multiple light sources, make sure they are all the same color temperature (e.g. all daylight or all tungsten), or use gels to match them. Mixing different color temperatures can result in unnatural, clashing colors in your image.

Not considering the background: The background is just as important as the subject when it comes to lighting. Make sure the background is properly exposed and lit, and avoid distracting shadows, highlights, or colors that compete with your subject.

Not experimenting or trying new techniques: It's easy to get stuck in a lighting rut, using the same setup or technique for every shoot. Challenge yourself to try new lighting styles, modifiers, or setups, and don't be afraid to make mistakes or take risks in the pursuit of creative growth.

Not planning or scouting ahead: Poor planning or lack of scouting can result in missed opportunities, logistical challenges, or suboptimal lighting conditions. Take the time to research your location, plan your shots, and scout for the best light and angles before your shoot.

By being aware of these common lighting mistakes and taking steps to avoid them, you can create more polished, professional-looking images that effectively convey your creative vision and tell your story.

Photography is an art form that requires a great deal of skill and knowledge. Knowing how to work with different light sources and lighting configurations is one of the biggest challenges in photography. In this in-depth beginner's guide, we'll cover the best settings, techniques and equipment you need for amazing results. A key light is the main light source of the portrait.

Most of the time it is placed right in front of the subject, forming an angle, illuminating a section of the subject. These angles range from 15 to 70 degrees, with 45 being the most used by photographers and filmmakers. A fill light can be used together with a diffuser to subtly enhance the shadows of images without creating new shadows. Split lighting is used in portraits with the light source on the side to achieve a perfect effect of half light and half shadow on a face. If you don't have any equipment yet, or if you're a professional photographer looking for a lightweight and flexible travel kit, there are plenty of options available.

You can start with professional-quality lights at an affordable price, but with equipment that doesn't collect dust as you improve and expand your home studio. And once you've mastered each style, you can dramatically change its appearance with a simple modifier change, an adjustment in the contrast ratio, or the addition of other lighting.

In many cases, natural sunlight may be all you need, but if you're shooting indoors and need to capture sharp product photos, or if you're producing professional-looking videos for YouTube, it might be worth investing in lighting equipment. It includes four adjustable lighting stands with two white and two black umbrellas, four 45 W bulbs and an 8 x 10 foot background frame with three backgrounds (black, white and green). Constant lighting: An important choice when choosing a lighting kit is whether you want a momentary light for individual images or a light that constantly illuminates the subject.

Examples of split lighting configuration and loop lighting with a large softbox can help you understand how to use these different types of lighting settings for portrait photography. It is ideal for glamorous and beautiful photographs, as it creates soft and uniform lighting while sculpting the shape of the face. While they're not a prerequisite, they can definitely give your photos a professional look of quality that traditional lighting doesn't offer.

In the introductory chapter of Dramatic Lighting with Chris Knight, we combined 12 chapters into a summary video, because it's a masterclass on the basics of lighting. Whatever your skill level, these different types of lighting settings for portrait photography will equip you for a wide range of situations.

Kristopher Donofrio
Kristopher Donofrio

Hardcore bacon ninja. Social media lover. Incurable analyst. Hipster-friendly music guru. Avid internet practitioner. Beer practitioner.